Adaptive Air Suspension
The adaptive air suspension – an air suspension system with controlled damping – offers a wide range between smooth cruising and sporty handling. It also enables level control.
The system is designed differently for the different individual product lines. In the front suspension struts, air springs enclose the shock absorbers; these two components are implemented separately in the rear suspension. In the Audi A8, air suspension struts are also mounted at the rear suspension. The central chassis control unit (electronic chassis platform) individually controls the shock absorbers at each wheel at cycles on the order of milliseconds – according to the road composition, driver’s style and the mode set in the Audi drive select handling system. Solenoid damper valves vary the volumetric flow of the hydraulic fluid. The mounting orientation of the compressor and the number of pressure reservoirs to be filled differ, depending on the model. In the Audi Q7, for example, an air volume of 10.1 liters is distributed to two pressure reservoirs; in the Audi Q5, 7.2 liters of air is distributed to one pressure reservoir. In the Audi A6, the compressor fills 4.3 liters of air into one pressure reservoir.
The adaptive air suspension controls the height of the body at different levels according to the driving speed and the driver’s preference. In the Audi Q5, for example, the adaptive air suspension lowers the body 22 mm(0.9 in) compared to the steel suspension. The system sets the ideal body position for every driving situation. In the lift/offroad mode of Audi drive select (up to 35 km/h(21.7 mph) speed), the body is 45 mm (1.8 in) higher than the normal level; in allroad mode (up to 80 km/h(49.7 mph)) it is still 25 mm (1.0 in) higher. In the dynamic mode, the body is lowered 15 mm(0.6 in). In the other modes, this lowering automatically begins at a driving speed of around 120 km/h(74.6 mph). This increases driving stability and improves aerodynamics. For convenient loading, the rear body can be lowered 55 mm(2.2 in) by pushing a button in the luggage compartment.
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)
An advanced cruise control system that maintains a preset distance or time interval from the vehicle ahead by automatically controlling the brakes and throttle.
In the suspension with damper control, sensors measure the movements of all four wheels as well as the vehicle’s lateral and longitudinal acceleration. The damping characteristic is then adjusted for road surface conditions and the driving situation. This results in enhanced driving dynamics with even more comfort. Furthermore, the driver can choose the default suspension setting in the Audi drive select system at the push of a button and thus call up the desired handling characteristics at any time.
Headlights that steer in the direction the front wheels are turned to improve visibility when going around corners.
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS)
A variety of safety-related systems that monitor vehicle performance and the surrounding environment. ADAS provide a variety of driver alerts when potentially hazardous conditions exists, and some (such as automatic emergency braking) can take corrective action if the driver fails to respond appropriately to a dangerous situation.
A paper or fabric baffle that captures dust, dirt and debris from the intake airstream to prevent it from entering the engine.
Any service replacement part not obtained from the vehicle manufacturer through a franchised dealer. Many aftermarket parts are made by the same companies that supply the original equipment part to the vehicle manufacturer.
All-wheel drive (AWD)
A permanent, four-wheel drive system designed for improved traction on all surfaces and at all times. The main difference between AWD and 4WD systems is that the driver cannot disengage AWD.
The liquid in the engine cooling system that dissipates heat. Engine coolant prevents freeze-up in winter, raises the boiling point in summer, and protects the cooling system from rust and corrosion year-round.
Anti-lock braking system (ABS)
System that prevents wheel lock-up by automatically regulating the brakes. ABS can decrease braking distances on slippery pavement, prevent skidding and provide greater control during sudden stops.
The roof support pillar at either side of the windshield.
A series of cameras that provide an overhead 360-degree view of the area immediately surrounding the vehicle via a screen on the dashboard.
Automatic emergency braking (AEB)
A system that automatically applies the brakes to prevent or mitigate a collision when the car is approaching another vehicle or object at too high a rate of speed.
Autonomous vehicle (AV)
A car that uses advanced technology to accelerate, brake and steer itself. There are six levels of vehicle autonomy designated by SAE Standard J3016.
The name Tesla uses for their semi-autonomous vehicle driving system.
Chassis Control System
The chassis control system works with newly developed CDC dampers (CDC = continuous damping control). The pistons contain solenoid valves that offer very energy-efficient control. They allow hydraulic fluid to flow faster or slower as required. The central chassis control unit, the electronic chassis platform, processes all sensor signals within milliseconds and controls each damper individually. Together with the wide control range of the damper valves, this produces a broad spectrum of responses ranging from a soft ride to tight handling.
Drive Select (Audi)
The Audi drive select handling system lets drivers experience different types of vehicle tuning in one vehicle. In addition, drivers can change the character of their cars by choosing one of the modes auto, comfort, dynamic or efficiency – from an emphasis on comfort to exceptionally dynamic handling or enhanced fuel efficiency. In the “individual” mode, drivers can also set vehicle tuning according to their personal preferences. For example, a sporty engine setting might be combined with smooth steering. The Q and allroad models also have the allroad mode (only with air suspension) and offroad mode.
Audi drive select influences the engine characteristic and steering. Optional equipment features may extend the number of tuning parameters (depending on the model). They are
– The automatic transmission
– Cruise control system or adaptive cruise control (ACC)
– Dynamic steering
– Sport differential
– Quattro drive
– Air suspension
– Electromechanical active roll stabilization (exclusively in the SQ7)
– Matrix LED headlights
– Ambient lighting
– Automatic climate control, and
– Suspension with damper control
In the RS models, the system also controls the exhaust flaps. Audi drive select is operated via the MMI system and, depending on the model, one or two buttons on the center console.
Audi Magnetic Ride (AMR)
Audi magnetic ride continuously adjusts the function of the shock absorbers to the road conditions and driving style of the driver. The synthetic hydrocarbon oil circulating in the pistons of the shock absorbers contains tiny magnetic particles ranging in size from 3 to 10 thousandths of a millimeter – ten times thinner than a human hair. When voltage is applied to a coil integrated into the dampers, it creates a magnetic field that changes the orientation of the particles. Set transversely to the oil flow direction, they inhibit its flow through the piston channels. The entire process takes just a few milliseconds. Using precise sensor data, a control unit continuously calculates the optimal levels for each individual wheel and adaptively adjusts the operation of the dampers. The wheels are precisely braced during cornering and body roll is largely suppressed. During braking, Audi magnetic ride counteracts the tendency of the body to dip. The AMR damper control performs the described functions independently from the driving mode selected in Audi drive select, but the driver can vary the basic tuning of the dampers in the three levels: comfort, auto and dynamic. In normal mode (auto) – with low oil viscosity and high flow – the car offers up a balanced ride. In sport mode (dynamic) – when the flow is restricted – it is uncompromisingly firm on the road. In both modes, the focus is on transverse and longitudinal dynamics. When the driver selects “comfort,” the wheels are damped with a focus on reducing vertical body movement to a minimum. This provides a comfortable ride despite poor road conditions.
Dynamic Ride Control (DRC)
In a suspension with Dynamic Ride Control, steel springs operate with shock absorbers that adjust to three levels. Each pair of shock absorbers is connected with a central valve via diagonal oil lines. When cornering at speed, the valves regulate the oil flow in the shock absorber of the spring-deflected front wheel at the outside of the curve. They increase the support provided and reduce pitch and roll movements. This lets the vehicle hug the road more tightly and improves handling. The new generation of shock absorbers with internal adjustment will be used for the first time in the RS 5 Coupé (B9). These provide a noticeable difference between the individual modes (comfort, auto, dynamic) of Audi drive select.
Dynamic steering varies the steering ratio by up to 100 percent based on the driving speed, steering angle and selected mode in the Audi drive select handling system. The central component is superimposition gearing in the steering column, which is driven by an electric motor. Known as strain wave gearing, its construction is compact, lightweight and torsionally rigid. It is free of play, precise and exhibits low friction. The gearing can transmit tremendous torques extremely rapidly and achieves a high level of efficiency. The strain wave gearing performs its task with just three key components. An electric motor turns an elliptical internal rotor, which deforms a thin-walled sun wheel via a ball bearing, which is connected to the steering input shaft. At the vertical axes of the ellipse it meshes with a hollow wheel that has a sprocket and acts on the steering output shaft. When the internal rotor turns, the large axis of the ellipse shifts, which brings it into the tooth engagement zone. Because the sun wheel has fewer teeth than the hollow wheel, the two exhibit a relative motion to one another – they are superimposed. The large gear ratio of the fast-running electric motor makes it possible to build up this ratio quickly and precisely.
At low driving speeds – in city traffic and in maneuvering – the dynamic steering operates very directly; all it takes is two full turns of the steering wheel to travel from end stop to end stop. The power steering boost is also high, making parking maneuvers very easy. On country roads, the directness of the steering response and steering power assist are reduced progressively. At fast expressway speeds, indirect gear ratios and low power assist are used to smooth out unsteady steering movements to enable impressive straight tracking. Dynamic steering works closely with the electronic stabilization control program, ESC to achieve sporty handling and driving safety. If necessary, it counter-steers slightly; its slight interventions, most of which are unnoticeable to the driver, reduce understeer and oversteer due to load alterations in the vast majority of situations. When braking on road surfaces with split friction coefficients, the system helps by means of stabilizing steering interventions. Dynamic steering takes less time for its corrections than the brake system needs to build up pressure at the wheels. In many situations, it handles the primary work – brake interventions either become unnecessary or they just serve a dampening function that reduces driving speed. The advantages in terms of driving safety and sportiness are especially noticeable at high speeds and on slippery surfaces such as snow.
The electromechanical progressive steering increases both driving dynamics and ride comfort. It is used in models built using the modular transverse matrix. Depending on the steering angle, its specially-toothed steering rack provides different steering ratios. When driving straight ahead and making only small steering movements, the ratio is at its biggest and steering is thus somewhat less direct around the central position. When the steering angle is increased, the ratio is reduced and thus the steering becomes more direct. This is particularly apparent from the reduced steering effort required when parking or driving in city traffic. On winding out-oftown roads, the car can be driven both agilely and precisely with little steering input. Here, the progressive steering delivers sporty handling. Furthermore, the steering assistance it provides is adapted to the vehicle’s speed. This ensures excellent steering characteristics to suit any driving situation. The Audi drive select driving dynamics system allows you to vary the setup of the steering between the available modes auto, comfort and dynamic.
The sport differential provides for better driving dynamics, traction and stability. The sport differential actively distributes drive torque between the rear wheels, adding a self-locking center differential to the quattro drive. In addition to integrating the features of a conventional differential, it also integrates multi-plate clutches with electro-hydraulic actuation. The multiplate clutches are operated by the hydraulic control unit. An electric motor drives the highperformance oil pump, which generates the required hydraulic pressure.
When the clutch closes, it variably imposes a higher speed on the superposition gear for the relevant wheel. When it is forced to turn faster, the extra torque required for this is taken – via the differential – from the wheel across from it on the inside of the curve. Nearly the entire torque could be directed to one wheel in this way. The differential can distribute the torque between the left and right wheels in all operating states, including in overrun. When turning into or accelerating in a curve, most of the torque is directed to the outside wheel. The sport differential literally pushes the car into the curve, which eliminates even the onset of understeer. It ensures stable and precise response to steering inputs, which in turn leads to excellent agility. In case of oversteer, the sport differential stabilizes the vehicle by shifting torque to the wheel on the inside of the curve. The sport differential is controlled from the highly integrated chassis control unit (electronic chassis platform), which assumes central control over other chassis control systems as well. By bundling all relevant chassis functions into a central control unit, the developers achieved optimal networking, tuning and coordination of functions. The software for the sport differential constantly computes the distribution of torque at the rear axle that is ideal for driving dynamics. This takes into account the steering angle, yaw angle, lateral acceleration and driving speed. The customer can influence system characteristics by networking with Audi drive select.
Wheel-Selective Torque Control
In the quattro drive (both permanent and the type with ultra technology) and in front-wheel drive, wheel-selective torque control – a software function –acts as a partner to the driver. Wheel-selective torque control is active on all types of road surfaces. In dynamic cornering, the software function minimally brakes the front wheel on the inside of the curve (for front-wheel drive) or both wheels on the inside of the curve (for quattro drive) before they experience slip. These interventions are made even if the driver is not pressing the accelerator pedal at the time. Due to the difference in propulsive forces, the car turns itself into the curve ever so slightly. Turn-in behavior remains neutral longer, making handling even more precise, agile and stable.
Displays – Digital Instrument Displays
As an alternative to analog dial instruments, Audi offers innovative displays that include a fully digital instrument cluster with high-resolution, user-configurable graphics. Another highlight: the head-up display directly in the driver’s field of view. The Audi virtual cockpit is a fully digital instrument cluster with a 12.3-inch TFT screen and a resolution of 1,440 x 540 pixels. It displays exceptionally sharp and highly detailed graphics. Working in the background is a high-performance Tegra 30 chip from Audi’s cooperation partner NVIDIA. The fully digital display enables a wide range of information to be presented clearly and directly in the driver’s field of view. This includes the classic speed and rpm figures as well as navigation, communication and entertainment information. Indicators are shown at fixed positions along the lower border; they show the outside temperature, time and odometer readings as well as warning and information symbols. The image is refreshed 60 times per second so that the virtual needle of the tachometer tracks smoothly and very precisely. Scrolling operations in lists are based on a physical model that considers such factors as inertia, elasticity and damping. As with the DIS display in the analog instrument cluster, the driver operates the Audi virtual cockpit from the multifunction steering wheel. He can switch between two different user views by pressing the “View” button. In Infotainment mode, the display is dominated by a central window. It creates a large stage for the navigation map or for lists in the phone, radio and audio areas. In this case, the tachometer and speedometer are displayed as small dial instruments. In the classic view, these instruments are approximately as large as analog instruments, and the center display window is therefore smaller. The S models also have a sport mode, in which the tachometer is located at the center. This is also the case for the RS screen, which is provided in addition to the infotainment and classic views in the RS models. In this view, users can configure additional instruments around the dominant tachometer which show such parameters as torque, power output, tire pressure and g-forces. In keeping with MMI logic, the Audi virtual cockpit modifies the color scheme of the display according to the base menu being used – orange for the Media menu and green for the Phone menu, for instance.
The head-up display projects information relevant to the driver as symbols and numbers that can be quickly perceived within the driver’s direct field of view, including navigation and warning messages and data from assistance systems. The human eye perceives the information extremely quickly – and there’s no need for drivers to refocus from their accustomed long-range view. Audi offers two different systems. In the Audi A4, A5 and Q5, for example, the image is projected onto the windshield. The information appears to hover around two meters(6.6 ft) in front of the driver within a visual window measuring 200 x 80 mm(7.9 x 3.1 in). A TFT monitor with white LED backlighting generates the color image. Two aspherical mirrors magnify and redirect the image. The mirrors also compensate for any distortions due to the curvature of the windshield. The driver can use the Audi MMI to specify which information should be shown in the head-up display; the height and brightness can also be adjusted here. In the Audi Q2, for instance, the head-up display projects the graphics and numbers onto a glass panel. When the system is started, a 100 x 50 millimeter(3.9 x 2.0 in) panel extends upward from the instrument panel behind the instrument cluster by electrical power. The height of the panel can be adjusted to match the driver’s height when seated. The MMI is used to choose the information to be displayed, such as navigation symbols or information about the assistance systems.
Driver Assistance Systems
Audi assists drivers with a broad range of assistance systems – from turn and parking assistants to the camera-based road sign recognition. They deliver more safety, convenience and efficiency, and they pave the way for piloted driving.
Adaptive Cruise Control (with Stop&Go function)
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) offers relief to drivers especially on long trips and in stop-and-go traffic. It maintains a preset distance to the vehicle ahead by automatically accelerating and braking. The driver can choose from five distance levels and adjust acceleration and control system dynamics with Audi drive select. The system uses radar sensors and a front camera. They detect vehicles ahead and measure the distance to them. In interplay with S tronic or tiptronic, the system covers the entire speed range from 0 to 250 km/h(155.3 mph). With a manual transmission, it starts at 30 km/h (18.6 mph). When the system is deactivated, the distance indicator shows the distance to the car ahead and warns drivers when they are tailgating. Its operating speed range is 60 km/h (37.3 mph) and above. When combined with S tronic or tiptronic, ACC also includes the Stop&Go function. In heavy traffic, it autonomously decelerates the car to a stop. After a brief stop, it automatically resumes driving, following the vehicle ahead. After a longer stop, the driver must tap the accelerator pedal or the control stalk on the steering column. In addition to the radar sensors and front camera, ultrasonic sensors also monitor the vehicle’s immediate surroundings.
Audi Active Lane Assist
Operating at speeds from 65 km/h (40.4 mph), Audi active lane assist helps the driver keep the vehicle in the driving lane. A camera detects lane lines and the track that the car is following between them. In this process, the camera can distinguish between yellow lines in construction zones and standard white markings. If the car approaches a line without the turn signal being activated, the system helps the driver to steer back into the lane by means of gentle but noticeable interventions in the electromechanical power steering. In the MMI system, the driver sets how early the control intervention should occur. In the case of an early steering intervention point, the system guides the driver towards the middle of the lane by gentle, centering steering interventions. With a late steering intervention point, Audi active lane assist does not intervene until shortly before the detected lane marking might be crossed; then it gives a corrective steering intervention in the proper direction. In addition, the driver may choose to be warned by a vibration of the steering wheel when crossing detected lane markings.
Audi Pre Sense Basic
Audi pre sense basic initiates preventive safety measures for occupants as soon as it recognizes a critical driving state. It utilizes information from various vehicle systems to determine this. For instance, it intervenes if the Electronic Stabilization Control (ESC) sensors detect skidding or hard braking. Then the system pretensions the seat belts of the driver and front passenger electrically to reduce their forward or lateral movements. The side windows and sliding sunroof are automatically closed. In addition, the hazard warning lights are activated to alert the following traffic.
Audi pre sense city – at speeds of up to 85 km/h (52.8 mph), the system scans the road for other vehicles and pedestrians using a windshield-mounted front camera with a range of over 100 meters (328.1 ft). If it detects an impending collision, it warns the driver based on a graduated warning approach. First, there are visual and audible signals, then an extra warning jolt if the driver does not react. The warning time point can be set in the MMI system. In the second stage, the system automatically initiates hard braking. At speeds, up to 40 km/h(24.9 mph) accidents can be avoided completely within system limits. At speeds between 40 and 85 km/h(24.9 and 52.8 mph), the brake intervention reduces the car’s velocity at impact. If installed, the actions of Audi pre sense are also triggered. Audi pre sense front – the Audi pre sense front safety system is able to either avoid front-end collisions or minimize the severity of their consequences. It is available in combination with adaptive cruise control with Stop &Go, and it utilizes this other system’s radar sensors and the front camera. In a dangerous situation, Audi pre sense front uses a graduated warning concept to urge the driver to brake. First, it gives the driver visual and audible warnings, pre-charges the brake system and, if an adaptive air suspension is installed, it stiffens the shock absorbers. If the driver does not react, partial braking is initiated. Simultaneously, the system pretensions the seat belts, close the side windows and sliding sunroof and activates the hazard warning lights. As a final action, Audi pre sense front initiates hard braking from speeds under 30 km/h(18.6 mph). The system is active over the car’s entire speed range up to 250 km/h(155.3 mph). Audi pre sense rear – Audi pre sense rear uses radar sensors in the rear bumper to detect an impending rear-end collision, and it initiates preventive safety measures. These include pretensioning the front seat belts by electric power and closing the windows and sliding sunroof. In addition, the system activates the hazard warning lights to alert the following traffic to the critical situation. In this process, the Rear-end collision alert signal (RECAS) is triggered, which flashes the hazard warning lights at a high frequency. Audi pre sense rear is active in the background over the car’s entire driving
speed range with the exception of trailer towing situations.
Audi Side Assist
The Audi side assist lane-changing assistant helps the driver to change lanes at driving speeds of 15 km/h(9.3 mph) and faster. It uses two rear-mounted radar sensors with a scanning range of roughly 70 meters(229.7 ft). If the system detects a vehicle located in the blind spot or approaching quickly from the rear, a warning LED is lit in the housing of the relevant exterior mirror. If the driver activates the turn signal anyway, the LED flashes several times in rapid succession.
Collision Avoidance Assist
Collision avoidance assist helps the driver steer around an obstacle in a critical situation. The system uses data from the two radar sensors and the front camera for this purpose. In calculating a suitable evasive maneuver corridor, it takes into account the distance, width and offset of the vehicle driving ahead. First, a jolt is produced to warn the driver of the hazard. If the driver then actively avoids the obstacle, the assistant applies a slight steering torque that helps by correcting the driver’s steering input or helping to make a necessary lane change. Collision avoidance assist is available over the speed range from approx. 30 to 150 km/h (18.6 to 93.2 mph), and it assumes that the driver is actively steering during the entire maneuver. The driver is informed of the intervention by an indicator in the instrument cluster.
Cross Traffic Assist Rear
Rear cross traffic assist warns the driver of approaching vehicles it deems critical when slowly backing up, such as when pulling out of a perpendicular parking spot. It uses the rear radar sensors for this. They cover the zone at the rear, including the driving lanes to the left and right behind the vehicle. The warnings are progressive – initially a visual warning is shown in the MMI display (in the park assist display). The situation is represented in a virtual top view and in the “rear” and “rear side” camera views. Red arrows behind the vehicle point in the direction from which there is a potential hazard. If the driver does not react to the visual display, an audible signal sounds before the system warns the driver with a brake jolt. This helps to avoid accidents while exiting parking spaces.
Cruise control maintains a desired driving speed constantly starting at around 30 km/h (18.6 mph) (model dependent), provided that it can be maintained by engine power and engine braking effects. The system offers relief to drivers in this way – especially on long trips. At the same time, the constant speed mode of driving contributes towards lower fuel consumption and lower CO2 emissions. The system is operated via a separate steering column stalk, and the preset driving speed is shown in the instrument cluster. The system is deactivated when the driver brakes.
Emergency Assist detects, within system limits, when the driver is inactive. In such a case, the system assumes control of the vehicle and automatically brakes it to a standstill in its own lane. Emergency Assist monitors the driver’s steering activity. If it detects that the driver is inactive, it prompts the driver repeatedly, via visual and audible warnings and by brake jolts, to actively take over control of the vehicle again. With the first strong brake jolt at a driving speed below 80 km/h(49.7 mph), the hazard warning lights are also activated to warn the surrounding traffic. If the driver remains inactive, despite the warnings, Emergency Assist brings the vehicle to a standstill within system limits, and the parking brake is engaged. The driver can deactivate Emergency Assist at any time by moving the steering wheel, pressing the brake or accelerator pedal or by shutting off active lane assist or adaptive cruise control. Emergency Assist represents an extension of Audi active lane assist, and it can use the functions of adaptive cruise control and pre sense front. It is only activated when active lane assist is activated and prepared for warnings, and adaptive cruise control is switched on or active.
Exit warning contributes to safety in city traffic. It is activated when the car comes to a stop. If other vehicles or bicyclists are approaching from the rear and are classified as critical, the system warns passengers not to open the doors. The system uses LED lights in the door trim for the visual warning – depending on the model, it might be a light strip on the inside door handle or contour light in the door handle recess. In a situation assessed to be hazardous, the LEDs flicker four times and light red. The LEDs of Audi side assist are also lit in the relevant exterior side mirror. The exit warning remains active for approximately three minutes after the ignition is turned off. This system is based on two radar sensors of Audi side assist, which monitor the rear zones – behind the vehicle and to the sides at the rear.
High-beam assist utilizes a camera mounted on the interior mirror. It detects light sources – the headlights of oncoming vehicles, tail lights of other road users and the reflections of municipality limit signs, for instance – and automatically switches between high beam and low beam lighting. This provides for better visibility and a more relaxed driving experience. Drivers of oncoming vehicles are not blinded by glare.
Hold assist enables convenient drive-offs when the car is on the usual inclines and descents of street traffic, and it prevents the vehicle from rolling. The system automatically switches over to the electromechanical parking brake when the vehicle is stopped for a longer period of time while hold assist is activated. This ensures that the car will remain stationary even without activation of the parking brake. In conjunction with S-tronic, after a stop at a traffic light, for instance, the car drives off as soon as the driver presses the accelerator pedal. The system is activated by pushing a button.
Multicollision Brake Assist
Multicollision brake assist automatically brakes the vehicle in the event of an accident, thus reducing the danger of skidding as well as the risk of further collisions. A special sensor system is used to detect a collision. The safety computer determines the severity of the crash and the reduction in speed associated with the collision. If defined thresholds are exceeded, the safety computer sends a corresponding message to the Electronic Stabilization Control (ESC) control unit to trigger an automatic brake application, taking the system status into account. The vehicle is not automatically braked if the driver presses on the accelerator. The same is true if the ESC, the brake system or the electrical system are not functioning.
Park assist can automatically steer the vehicle into parallel or perpendicular parking spaces. It uses ultrasonic sensors for this purpose, which are located in the front and rear of the bumpers and in the sides of the bumpers. The sensors measure parking spaces along the road while driving past them at moderate speed. To achieve optimal results, this speed should be a maximum of 20 km/h(12.4 mph) for perpendicular parking spaces and a maximum of 30 km/h (18.6 mph) for parallel spaces. A message appears on the MMI display when the system finds a suitable spot. The only actions required of the driver in parking are to accelerate, shift gears and brake. The system handles the entire steering process. In addition, audible signals help the driver. Park assist will steer multiple forward and backward maneuvers if necessary. It can also exit from parallel parking spaces. The driver activates the system by pushing a button on the center console.
Parking System Plus
Parking system plus informs the driver, visually and audibly, about obstacles in front of and behind the vehicle. The warnings are made when the distance to a detected object in the path of driving is less than 90 cm(35.4 in) – depending on the specific model – after the driver has engaged reverse gear and activated the system by pushing a button on the center console. Ultrasonic sensors inconspicuously integrated into the bumpers measure the distance. The MMI display depicts it visually. A white segment shows a detected object outside of the driving path. Red segments represent detected objects within the driving path. The virtual driving path display also shows lateral guide lines which are precalculated based on the currently selected steering input and thereby assists in convenient parking and exiting. Increasing frequency of the audible warning indicates that the distance to the obstacle is decreasing. At around 30 cm (11.8 in) distance to the detected object, the driver hears a constant tone – the signal to stop.
Parking System, Rear
Parking system, rear makes it easy to maneuver and park – even in small spaces. While reverse gear is engaged, the system warns the driver with audible signals as soon as the distance to a detected object behind the vehicle is classified as critical. For this purpose, the system utilizes ultrasonic sensors that are inconspicuously integrated into the rear bumper. They also detect obstacles outside of the driver’s field of view. Increasing frequency of the audible warning indicates that the distance to the obstacle is decreasing. At around 30 cm(11.8 in) distance to the detected object, the driver hears a constant tone – the signal to stop.
Predictive Efficiency Assistant
The predictive efficiency assistant works closely with Audi adaptive cruise control (ACC), the Audi navigation system and the camera-based traffic sign recognition. When ACC is active, the system predictively and automatically adjusts the preselected speed to conditions – the route topography, speed limits and the traffic ahead. Regardless of whether route guidance is active or not, the predictive efficiency assistant uses the route data to alert the driver about situations that call for lower speeds. The system recognizes curves, traffic circles, intersections, gradients, city limits and speed limit signs – in many cases long before the driver sees them. A corresponding warning appears in the instrument cluster and/or the Audi virtual cockpit and head-up display. If the driver wishes, the system can control the free-wheeling of the eight-speed tiptronic itself. This coasting operation is only activated if it can be used for a longer period of time. When it ends, the car automatically accelerates to the speed the driver has selected, provided the ACC is activated. The predictive efficiency assistant can reduce fuel consumption on country roads by up to 10 percent.
The reversing camera simplifies maneuvering by showing the zone behind the vehicle on the MMI display. It shows the calculated driving track based on the steering angle as well as auxiliary lines and guide lines. For parallel parking, the latter lines precisely direct steering into the parking space in conjunction with steering reversal points. The virtual blue surface in the camera image indicates where the vehicle will be positioned after the parking procedure. The reversing camera is inconspicuously integrated into the handle trim strip of the luggage compartment lid. It is active as soon as the driver engages reverse gear or has activated the system by pushing a button on the center console.
The configurable speed limiter limits driving speed to a value set by the driver within the speed range of 30 to 250 km/h(18.6 to 155.3 mph) – which is very helpful within city limits or construction zones, for example. When the preset limit is reached, the vehicle gently throttles the speed down. The speed limit is not exceeded even if the driver applies more pressure to the accelerator pedal. However, the driver can temporarily override the limit by kick-down, and the speed limiter can be completely deactivated at any time from the steering column stalk. The speed that has been preset is shown in the instrument cluster.
Trailer Maneuver Assist
This system helps the driver to maneuver in reverse with a trailer. The driver can use the rotary/push-button control in the MMI to variably adjust the angle at which the trailer should be backed up. To travel in a straight line, the driver taps once on the control. The image from the rear view camera on the MMI monitor shows lines that serve as a guide. Trailer maneuver assist turns the steering wheel and directs the trailer onto the selected course. In this process, the driver steers the entire car-trailer combination with the rotary/push-button control. A rotating sensor in the trailer coupling serves as the technical basis of the trailer maneuver assist – it senses the articulation angle between towing vehicle and the trailer. Prior to use, drivers should briefly acquaint themselves with the system by driving a number of meters with a trailer. The trailer maneuver assist allows a driving speed of up to 10 km/h(6.2 mph). If the articulation angle is too large, the system emits a warning, and it brakes in case of an emergency.
Traffic Jam Assist
Traffic jam assist is a subsystem of adaptive cruise control (ACC). In vehicles with an automatic transmission, traffic jam assist can assume certain steering tasks over a speed range up to 65 km/h(40.4 mph) on roads that are in good condition, as long as the traffic is moving slowly. The stem uses the radar sensors and the front camera. It guides the car by making gentle steering movements within system limits. Traffic jam assist orients itself to lane markings, roadside structures and other vehicles on the road. When traffic jam assist reaches its system limits – such as when the traffic thins out or there is a sharp curve ahead – the driver must assume driving tasks again. If the driver does not, the system warns the driver in several stages. As a final measure, it autonomously brings the car to a safe stop.
As soon as the driver sets the turn signal, turn assist monitors the lane with oncoming traffic. Data from the two radar sensors and the front camera are used for this purpose. Turn assist can apply a brake intervention to prevent the vehicle from colliding with an oncoming vehicle during left or right turns in drive-off maneuvers or when driving slowly – up to a speed of 10 km/h (6.2 mph). This brake intervention keeps the vehicle within its own lane. The driver is informed of the intervention by an indicator in the instrument cluster.
Traffic sign recognition
Camera-based traffic sign recognition detects traffic signs such as speed limit signs (including digital signs), no passing zones, entry restriction signs and other auxiliary signs, and it shows them to the driver in graphic form. They then appear in the driver information system and/or the Audi virtual cockpit as well as in the head-up display. The camera on the windshield also detects temporary speed restrictions such as in construction zones, as well as time- and weather-conditional restrictions. The system shows the currently applicable speed limit. For example, if a lower speed applies when the road is wet, this value is displayed – if the windshield wipers are on. Speed limits that are only in force at certain times of day are only shown at those times. In addition, the driver can choose a warning threshold as an offset to the legal speed limit. When this threshold is exceeded, a visual warning is given.
360 degree cameras
Four cameras on the vehicle scan the surroundings and depict obstacles in the immediate vicinity of the vehicle. The driver can choose from different camera views which simplify parking and maneuvering. In the “Surroundings” view, he gets an overview of the overall parking situation in a top view shown in the MMI display. It can help to position the vehicle more precisely in the parking space. The “front” and “rear side” views enable better visibility when exiting tight parking spaces or driveways. The practice-proven reversing camera view and a similar view toward the front round out the display options. The system is automatically activated when driving in reverse or by pushing a button on the center console.
Audi valvelift system (AVS)
The Audi valvelift system (AVS) adjusts valve timing over two stages according to engine load and rpm. This increases full-load torque or reduces fuel consumption in part-load operation. The Audi valvelift system is available in two variants. In the turbocharged 3.0 TFSI V6 engine and in the 2.0 TFSI (140 kW), it acts on the intake valves and controls the amount of inducted air. The throttle can remain wide open for part-load as well – this largely eliminates throttle losses due to reduced efficiency in inducting the air against the resistance of a closed throttle. At higher loads, it delays closing of the intake valves to achieve a better fill. The engine can induct air freely for more power and torque. In the four-cylinder gasoline engines from a power of 150 kW (vehicle-dependent) and the 2.5 TFSI five cylinder engine, AVS varies the stroke of the exhaust valves. It makes special adjustments to the valve timing to reduce flushing losses in the combustion chamber and ensures optimal flow of exhaust gas to the turbocharger particularly in the low rpm range. The combusted gases are exhausted from the cylinder completely, and this leads to greater filling with fresh gas. This results in more torque, even better dynamic throttle response and consequently much more tractive power and elasticity.In addition, AVS enables longer gear ratios, which lead to considerably improved fuel economy. Finally, the Audi valvelift system is also used to deactivate cylinders in the turbocharged V8 engine and in the 1.4 TFSI engines. In the valve switchover process, a “zero-stroke contour” is activated on both the intake and exhaust camshafts for half of the cylinders. This causes the still active cylinders to operate in load regions with better efficiency, while the deactivated cylinders largely run without losses – like gas springs. This action improves the engine’s fuel efficiency, especially under low loads.
In the 2.0 TFSI (140 kW), Audi has combined larger engine displacement with innovative technologies. The results: When shifting gears in a moderate style, drivers experience the fuel-efficiency advantages of a small displacement engine, but when driving in a sporty style they benefit from the dynamic performance of a large engine. The combustion process used in the 2.0 TFSI is essentially comparable to what is known as the Miller Cycle. However, Audi engineers have made crucial progress in its development. Besides the shortened compression phase and extended expansion phase, compression has been increased, and this is accompanied by turbocharging, dual fuel injection and the Audi valvelift system (AVS). In the shortened compression cycle, the 2.0 TFSI compresses the combustion gas like a small displacement 1.4 TFSI, but to a compression ratio of 11.7:1, which is unusually high for turbocharged engines. The intake valves close much earlier than usual – in interplay with increased pressure in the intake manifold they reduce throttle losses during the intake cycle in the partial load range. In the subsequent expansion phase, the engine delivers work and fully exploits the two liters of displacement. The approximately 40 percent longer expansion of the combustion gas compared with the 1.4 TFSI means that more engine work is output at the same rate of fuel consumption. This leads to a significant increase in efficiency over broad regions of the engine map. To ensure good fuel induction despite the short intake time, the combustion chambers, piston bowls and inlet ducts, as well as the turbocharger of the new 2.0 TFSI, have been specifically tuned for the new combustion process.
The eight-speed tiptronic is a classic torque-converter automatic transmission whose great strength lies in its high level of shifting and drive off comfort. Gear shifts are gentle, spontaneous, fast and highly flexible. Audi uses it in many models with a longitudinally mounted engine. Thanks to its eight speeds, jumps in rpm are small between gears, and the engine always runs near its ideal operating point. An rpm-adaptive torsion damper balances out undesired engine vibrations and enables efficient driving at extra-low engine speeds. Also playing a large role in the efficiency ensemble is the torque converter lockup clutch with integrated damper. Under normal driving conditions, the lockup torque converter connects the transmission directly to the engine. It works with limited slip in certain situations, which – in interplay with the integrated damper – permits very low engine speeds without vibrations occurring. If the car is stationary, an internal clutch decouples the transmission from the engine, even if the “D” stage is still selected – this avoids losses due to oil circulation in the converter. As soon as the driver releases the brake, the clutch closes, and the damping effect of the torque converter ensures a smooth drive-off. The dynamic shift program (DSP), which controls the eight-speed tiptronic, is housed in a small steel box within the gear-shift unit. It utilizes a fast processor. In the “D” mode, DSP autonomously sets the optimal shift point. To enable an efficient mode of driving, it gives preference to large gears and low engine speeds. In a second shift gate, the tiptronic allows manual intervention in the automatic transmission’s operation. This allows downshifting, e.g. on winding descents to boost engine braking or for driving in an exceptionally sporty style.
In sport mode, the automatic transmission boosts driving dynamics by setting later shift points. The selector lever communicates fully electronically, without any mechanical connection with the transmission (shift-by-wire). The eight-speed tiptronic is able to work together with the Audi start-stop system. It integrates a small, permanently filled hydraulic reservoir for this purpose. When restarting after a stop, its oil volume – of around 100 milliliters(0.1 US qt) – is pressurized by a spring-loaded piston, which is necessary for drive-off. The transmission is ready to start within a very short period of time.
Manual transmissions are ideal in conjunction with front-wheel and quattro drives. Most manual transmissions operate with six gears, and some with five gears. In the majority of Audi models with longitudinally mounted engines, the new generation of sixspeed manual transmissions is used for engine torques of up to 400 Nm(295 lb-ft). Customers can choose either front-wheel drive or the innovative quattro drive with ultra technology. Parts with lightweight design such as magnesium housings can be used, depending on the level of forces in the drive. An entire bundle of measures reduces internal friction in manual transmissions, which further improves their already high level of efficiency. An integrated oil pump enables implementation of the innovative dry sump lubrication via oil guides to efficiently minimize friction in the system. A special mount for the gear levers decouples vibrations in power transmission, and the driver feels no vibrations. What the driver does notice is the precise shifting on short and clearly defined paths.
Quattro permanent all-wheel drive
Throughout its model range, Audi offers a very wide variety of car concepts – and quattro technology is equally multifaceted. In Audi models with a longitudinally mounted front engine, the heart of the quattro drivetrain is a self-locking center differential. It is configured as a purely mechanical planetary gear with no time lag. A hollow wheel surrounds a sun wheel. Between the two, cylindrical planetary wheels turn, which are connected to the rotating housing. In regular driving operation, 60 percent of the drive torque flows to the rear axle via the hollow wheel, which has a larger diameter, and its associated output shaft. 40 percent goes to the front axle via the smaller sun wheel. This asymmetrical, dynamic torque distribution results in sporty handling that emphasizes rear propulsion. Oblique splines produce axial forces immediately when torque is transfered by the differential.
These forces act on friction discs to produce a locking torque that diverts the torque to the wheels with the better traction. In its latest form, the center differential can divert 70 percent of the torque to the front, or up to 85 percent to the rear. The high locking values enable a clearly defined torque distribution and highly precise interaction with control systems such as the ESC and wheel-selective torque control. For even greater dynamics and driving safety, top-of-the-line Audi models based on the modular longitudinal platform can also be equipped with a sport differential.
Modular transverse platform: the electro-hydraulic multi-plate clutch. For compact models with a transverse-mounted engine, Audi uses a quattro drivetrain featuring an electronically controlled multi-plate clutch with hydraulic actuator. It is mounted at the end of the propshaft before the rear differential to optimize weight distribution. Inside the clutch is a package of metal friction rings mounted in pairs one behind the other. One ring of each pair permanently meshes with the clutch basket, which rotates with the propshaft. The other ring of each pair is connected to the shaft leading to the rear differential. The all-wheel drive software constantly calculates the right torque distribution between the front and rear axles based on numerous data. When there is demand for torque, the highly efficient electric axial piston pump builds up as much as 40 bar of hydraulic pressure within just a few milliseconds. It presses the friction plates together, which enables variable transmission of the drive torque to the rear axle. The electronically controlled multi-plate clutch guarantees the best possible traction, driving dynamics and driving safety while delivering dynamic handling with actively controlled torque distribution. In the Audi TT, Audi S1, Audi S3, Audi RS Q3 and Audi RS 3, management of the multiplate clutch is configured with a focus on dynamics. Its special control philosophy puts considerable emphasis on parameters relevant to driving dynamics; at the same time it is based on the Audi drive select mode that is active (TT, S3 and RS3) and electronic stabilization control (ESC). This results in more frequent and pronounced torque distribution favoring the rear axle, which further adds to sporty handling. In sport mode, or when ESC is disabled, it permits controlled drifts on road surfaces with low friction coefficients. In a more relaxed mode of driving, on the other hand, it is possible to fully disengage the clutch temporarily in the TT to save fuel. As soon as the driving state changes, the quattro drive is reactivated.
Actively controlled front differential
In the Audi R8, the seven-speed S tronic with its integrated rear differential and limited-slip differential is located behind the engine. The electro-hydraulic multi-plate clutch integrated in the front differential transmits torque to the front wheels via a propshaft within just a few milliseconds. It can distribute torque between the two axles fully variably. The combination of a high-performance transmission mechanism and all-wheel drive software tailored to a mid-engine sports car enables driving dynamics that attain an unprecedented balance between stability and agility. The all-wheel-drive software continuously computes the ideal distribution of torque to the axles as a function of the driving situation, driver inputs and ambient conditions. Up to 100 percent of the power can flow to the front or rear axle, for instance. quattro management is integrated into the Audi drive select driving dynamics system which offers the four modes comfort, auto, dynamic and individual. In the performance mode, it also offers programs for dry, wet and snow. These programs adapt driving dynamics parameters to the specific grip conditions of the road surface. If grip is decreasing at the rear wheels, such as on a road surface with a low friction coefficient, an electrically driven axial piston pump presses the clutch plates inside the clutch together at a pressure of up to 38 bar; these plates are made of steel and are coated with an organic material. The higher the oil pressure, the greater the force that is redirected variably from the rear to the front axle. To assure quick pressure build-up, the pump continually circulates a fixed volume of oil. The multi-plate clutch is connected to the engine’s coolant circulation system, which utilizes three large radiators at the front of the car. This solution ensures that the clutch can perform its control tasks fully and precisely under all conditions. A temperature sensor and a pressure sensor continually monitor conditions and adapt control parameters as necessary. The mechanical rear differential further improves traction and driving dynamics. It has a locking effect of 25 percent during engine traction operation and 45 percent during engine overrun. It is precisely tuned for the dynamic character of the Audi R8 and the actively controlled quattro drive. This results in turn-in behavior that practically eliminates understeer.
Quattro with ultra technology
Quattro with ultra technology combines driving dynamics and safety with high efficiency. This is all attributable to combining the newly developed all-wheel drive components with a sophisticated operating strategy and a torque split that is perfectly matched to the car. This optimized all-wheel drive system engages only when required. Despite this, the drive system exhibits no perceptible differences from permanent systems in terms of traction and driving dynamics. The ultra technology reduces fuel consumption significantly. During test drives in normal traffic, the developers achieved average fuel savings of 0.3 liters per 100 kilometers(0.1 US gal per 62.1 mi)compared with a conventional all-wheel drive system. The conventional system, in turn, consumes roughly 0.5 liters(0.1 US gal) more than a front-wheel drive vehicle. This means that quattro with ultra technology reduces the added consumption associated with all-wheel drive by around 60 percent. During moderate driving, quattro with ultra technology enjoys all the advantages of front-wheel drive. All-wheel drive remains permanently available, however, and is there immediately when needed. The control system for the quattro powertrain is comprehensively networked. It acquires and evaluates data – in ten millisecond cycles – such as the steering angle, transverse and longitudinal acceleration and engine torque. All-wheel drive is generally activated predictively, i.e. in anticipation of the need for it. For example, the control unit computes the point when the inside front tire will reach the limit of grip during fast cornering. The calculation is completed roughly half a second in advance, and all-wheel drive is activated just before the wheel reaches the traction limit. With reactive activation – which rarely occurs in practice – the system reacts to sudden changes in the coefficient of friction. These changes might occur, for example, when the wheels go from dry asphalt to a sheet of ice. Thanks to the very short switching times, full quattro performance is ensured even in these extreme situations. The concept with two clutches in the powertrain gives quattro with ultra technology a key efficiency advantage over the competition. When the system changes to front-wheel drive, the front clutch – a multi-plate clutch at the transmission output – disconnects the propshaft. A decoupling clutch also opens in the rear differential. It shuts down the rotating components that cause the most drag losses here, such as the large crown wheel running in the oil bath. Despite the additional components, the quattro with ultra technology is nearly four kilograms (8.8 lb) lighter than the previous system. The quattro with ultra technology has been designed for numerous Audi models with a longitudinally mounted front engine. The system can be used in combination with manual transmissions, such as the S tronic dual-clutch transmission, up to torques of 500 Newton meters(368.8 lb-ft).
Downsizing became the mainstream in engine development with the introduction of TFSI technology – its aim was to continually reduce engine displacement while simultaneously increasing power density. This led to substantial savings in terms of fuel consumption. Rightsizing is a continuation of the conventional downsizing. It enables additional gains in fuel economy in the near full-load region by modified combustion processes and selection of displacement. Innovative technologies are used to achieve this such as the Audi valvelift system (AVS), integration of the exhaust manifold into the cylinder head and a turbocharger with an electric wastegate actuator. They make it possible to design the engines to attain an optimal combination of displacement, power, torque and fuel economy for the required use conditions. The cylinder on demand (COD) system is another example of this. It shuts down four or two cylinders in the part-load region. This solution is a variant of the rightsizing strategy. It aims to attain the right ratio of displacement and charging. S tronic dual-clutch transmission The S tronic dual-clutch transmission combines the convenience of an automatic transmission with the efficiency of a manual transmission. It is available over a broad range of models in different versions – with six or seven gears. Audi has developed a special version of the seven-speed S tronic for longitudinally mounted engines. In this version, the gear wheels for all gears are arranged sequentially on one output shaft. The four variants for transverse mounted engines, on the other hand, have a layout with two output shafts. This enables compact construction. The S tronic for transverse engines is available with six or seven speeds; the seven-speed variant has three versions. There are also three versions for longitudinally mounted engines, one of which is designed for pure quattro technology and another as a sporty version that is mounted at the rear of the R8. Which variant works together with which engine is based on what the customer wants in the vehicle and on the torque to be transmitted.
Two multi-plate clutches which operate different gears are integrated in the S tronic.
The large K1 clutch transmits engine torque via a solid shaft to the gear wheels for the oddnumbered gears 1, 3, 5 and 7. A hollow shaft rotates around the solid shaft. It is connected to the K2 clutch, which is either in parallel to the K1 clutch or inside of it. This K2 clutch operates the even-numbered gears 2, 4 and 6 as well as reverse gear. Both transmission subunits are continually active, but only one is connected to the engine at any given time. For example, when the driver accelerates in third gear, the fourth gear is already engaged in the second transmission structure. The shifting process takes place as the clutch changes – K1 disengages while K2 engages. This takes just a few hundredths of a second, and they are executed with nearly no interruption of propulsive power. The S tronic shifts so dynamically, fluidly and comfortably that the gear shift is hardly perceptible to the driver. The mechatronics module, a compact and robust unit, contains the electronics together with the hydraulic actuator units. Its control concept makes it possible to vary the speed of the gear shift and precisely control the necessary force. The multi-plate clutches are managed with maximum precision – the seven-speed S tronic also works in stop-and-go traffic and is very sensitive in maneuvering. The seven-speed S tronic can be used in different ways. The automatic mode offers the D (Drive) and S (Sport) programs. Drivers can use the selector lever or shift paddles on the steering wheel to shift themselves. Another feature for the high-performance models is Launch Control, which fully exploits the vehicle’s acceleration potential when starting off from a stop. The sportiest seven-speed S tronic for the longitudinally mounted engines can handle engine speeds up to 9,000 rpm. In all variants, the S tronic offers many strengths: a high level of efficiency, intelligent management and a large spread with high gears that have long gear ratios. Consequently, the high-tech transmission is able to improve fuel economy compared to a manual gearbox in many cases. Its two dry clutches operate without their own oil supply, which further boosts efficiency. All variants of the S tronic are combined with the start-stop system from Audi. The latest S tronic for longitudinally mounted engines offers – in addition to an innovative pressure reservoir system – shift-by-wire technology, which is a prerequisite for numerous assistance systems that culminate in piloted driving.
Intelligent connectivity and communication solutions are keys to the future of the automobile. With its LTE module, Audi is connecting its models to the World Wide Web and is integrating smartphones into the vehicle infotainment system in a variety of ways.
Audi connect brings the brand’s internet services into the car – either via the fast LTE standard with download speeds up to 100 MBit/s or via a UMTS module, depending on the model. Its wide variety of features (model dependent) range from navigation with Google Earth and Google Street View to travel information, traffic information online and parking space searches to the Twitter social network with a special interface designed for use in the car. Users can also access weather information and fuel prices, and drivers can choose to be guided directly to the fuel station of their choice by navigation. Services are displayed on the screen in the car (in MMI or the Audi virtual cockpit), and they are operated from the multifunction steering wheel, the rotary/push-button control or by voice command. The driver can also have most information read aloud, such as personalized messages, e-mails, text messages and information from social network portals such as Twitter. This lets drivers continue to devote their full attention to what is happening on the road. Customers can obtain the mobile data needed to use the services via the Audi connect SIM installed in the vehicle, which already includes a flat-rate data plan (see Audi connect SIM).As an alternative, customers can use their own SIM card or individual cellular service provider to obtain data.The car is equipped with a SIM card reader for this purpose. Audi connect is always coupled to a navigation system.
Audi connect contains the following online functions (model dependent):
myAudi special destinations
Navigation with Google Earth and Google Street View
Online Media Streaming
Point-of-Interest (POI) search with voice control
Traffic information online
Wi-Fi hotspot for up to 8 devices and Wi-Fi client in existing Wi-Fi network
Destination entry via myAudi or Google Maps.
Audi connect safety & service
The “Audi connect safety & service” package contains the functions emergency call, online roadside assistance and Audi service request. In the event of a serious accident, such as one that has activated the airbag, the car initiates an emergency call independently. It establishes a voice and data connection with the Audi Emergency Call Center and supplies important data such as GPS coordinates, direction of travel and number of occupants. Over a voice connection, a specially trained service employee asks the driver and passengers in their native language for further details about the severity of the accident so that the best form of assistance can be set in motion without delay. If the accident victims are unresponsive to voice communication, the service employee contacts the emergency coordination center, which dispatches an ambulance to the accident scene. The driver or front passenger can also activate the emergency call manually using a switch in the roof module. Because the emergency call module has its own power source, it can establish a voice connection even if the car’s electrical system has failed. The driver or front passenger can trigger online roadside assistance manually by pushing a button in the roof module. This connects them to the Audi Service Center, and the location and relevant car status data are transmitted. The vehicle’s Audi service request function sends service-relevant data to the workshop specified by the customer in the myAudi portal two weeks prior to scheduled maintenance. The service partner can then contact the customer to schedule an appointment. The Audi connect safety & service package also includes model-specific remote functions which can be used with the MMI connect app from a smartphone, smartwatch or – in conjunction with the fourth generation of Apple TV – from a television. Examples are locking and unlocking the car, checking where the car is parked and calling up the vehicle status. The status report includes information that the customer can have displayed via smartphone about the opened/closed state of windows and unlocked/locked state of doors, distance to empty, fuel level and oil level. The app can also be used to conveniently program the optional auxiliary heating function. In e-tron models, the momentary charge state and remaining electric driving range can be called up using the Audi MMI connect app. The driver can activate the charging process and climate control remotely – including at specific times with user-configurable timers. Information on recent drives and on average electrical energy consumption, for instance, is still available to the driver at all times.
Audi connect SIM
The Audi connect SIM is a permanently installed SIM card which customers in Europe can receive, depending on the model and country, in conjunction with the optional Audi connect package. It includes unlimited data for the use of connect services. The Audi connect SIM can also automatically access the provider for a specific country in most European countries, as necessary. This eliminates high, country-specific roaming charges and inconvenient roaming confirmations for the customer. With the Audi connect SIM card, the use of Audi connect services is activated when the car is purchased – and in combination with MMI Navigation plus it is free for three years (depending on the model). With MMI navigation, use of services is included for three months or, for an additional fee, for three years. After this, customers can ask their Audi service partner to extend access for a fee. The customer can also purchase additional data packages for the WiFi hotspot (see WiFi hotspot) via a special web portal, independently of the integrated Audi connect services. This allows the passengers to surf the internet with up to eight mobile devices.
Audi MMI connect app
The Audi MMI connect app offers many other functions via Audi connect services, which can be operated from the on-board MMI system. They include transferring a smartphone calendar to the screen in the car (in MMI or the Audi virtual cockpit). The driver can import an appointment location directly from the smartphone for use as a navigation destination and can transfer the phone number of a contact person as a contact entry. The system reads out the place, time and purpose of an appointment. Moreover, users can use the app to receive over 3,000 internet radio stations and store their favorites on their smartphones. It is also possible to play back music in the car that is stored locally on a smartphone and to use online media streaming with access to Napster products and services. In addition, the Audi MMI connect app can show current traffic information on a smartphone for use outside of the vehicle. The “Travel” service recommends travel destinations such as attractions, restaurants, hotels, shopping, sports and recreational options. Navigation destinations can be planned on a PC or with a smartphone; individual destinations can be sent to the Audi back-end via the myAudi online portal, Google Maps and the Audi MMI connect app. Afterwards, the driver can call up the saved destinations from the back-end for navigation in the car. This can also be done from other apps using the “Destination Sharing” service. The smartphone user simply selects the “Share” function to transfer the relevant data to the Audi MMI connect app. Customers can download the Audi MMI connect app free-of-charge at the Google Play Store or in the App Store. Registration at myAudi is then required. At myAudi, the driver can manage individual connect services, schedule service appointments or obtain information on the car. This requires that the relevant vehicle identification number be stored in the system. The Audi connect safety & service package also includes model-specific remote functions which can be used with the MMI connect app from a smartphone, smartwatch or – in conjunction with the fourth generation of Apple TV – from a television. Examples are locking and unlocking the car, checking where the car is parked and calling up the vehicle status. The status report includes information that the customer can have displayed via smartphone about the opened/closed state of windows and unlocked/locked state of doors, distance to empty, fuel level and oil level. The app can also be used to conveniently program the optional auxiliary heating function. In e-tron models, the momentary charge state and remaining electric driving range can be called up using the Audi MMI connect app. The driver can activate the charging process and climate control remotely – including at specific times with user-configurable timers. Information on recent drives and on average electrical energy consumption, for instance, is still available to the driver at all times.
Audi phone box
The Audi phone box with wireless charging in the center armrest connects the cellphone to the car antenna by near-field coupling, wirelessly, and delivers appreciably better reception quality. The box enables inductive charging according to the Qi standard, provided that the mobile device supports it. The current flows from a coil in the base of the Audi phone box to the receiver coil in the smartphone.
Audi smartphone interface
The Audi smartphone interface brings Apple Car Play and Android Auto into the vehicle and thus the familiar smartphone environment. Content such as navigation, phone, music and select third-party apps appear in a separate MMI menu or the Audi virtual cockpit (only in the Audi TT and Audi R8). Customers can use the user terminal or voice commands to conveniently access the contents of an iOS or Android device (iOS 7.1 and above, Android at least 5.0 Lollipop) that is connected via the USB port. The Audi smartphone interface acts independently of the navigation system and Audi connect services.
Bang & Olufsen Sound System with 3D sound
The Bang & Olufsen Sound System with 3D sound offers a fascinating innovation – sound that includes the spatial dimension of height. It utilizes four additional loudspeakers for this purpose: two in the instrument panel and one in each of the A-pillars. The music sounds like it is being played in a concert hall. Behind the new technology is an algorithm that Audi developed in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits (IIS) in Erlangen. The program uses stereo or 5.1 recordings to calculate the information for the third dimension and processes it for the additional loudspeakers. The number of loudspeakers varies depending on the model. In the Audi A4 and Audi Q5, a 755-watt 16-channel amplifier drives 19 loudspeakers; in the Audi A5 there are 20. In the Audi Q7, the Bang & Olufsen Sound System with 3D sound integrates 23 loudspeakers and delivers 1,920 watts of output power.
The WiFi hotspot is included in the vehicle with both navigation systems (standard or optional depending on the car model). This enables passengers to surf the internet with up to eight mobile devices – from laptops to tablets and smartphones. If the car has a permanently installed SIM card (Audi connect SIM), the customer can purchase data packages at the online shop of Audi partner Cubic Telecom. Customers can access the shop via their myAudi account. Once the appropriate packages have been enabled, they can be ordered directly from the car via the MMI system. If a customer selects a European data package, data transfers automatically continue to work at a fixed price when crossing an international border as well, i.e. by switching over internet providers. As an alternative, customers can continue to use their own SIM card in the car and make the WiFi internet connection through their own individual cell phone providers. In this case, however, data usage for Audi connect services is billed through the customer’s own SIM card, and the Audi connect SIM is temporarily deactivated. Communication with the internet is made through the roof antenna. This facilitates maximum connection stability and excellent reception quality. Encryption by the WPA2 standard ensures the necessary security of data transmissions.
One of the most important laws of the road is to see and be seen. The Ingolstadt-based premium carmaker fulfills this maxim with innovative lighting technologies and combines them with highly expressive design. Along with their high level of efficiency, LED headlights also offer significant benefits in terms of safety and comfort. With a color temperature of around 5,500 Kelvin, their light resembles daylight and hardly causes any eye fatigue – especially in the dark and in the case of adverse weather conditions. In addition, LED headlights offer longer visual range than xenon headlights. In fog and precipitation, they cause the driver less glare. The LEDs are maintenance-free and designed to last the life of the car. The give the Audi models a distinctive look and strong accents with their innovative daytime and nighttime designs. Audi designs the LED headlights differently for each model. In the Audi A5, for example, 26 LEDs per headlight generate all lighting functions. In each headlight, 14 LEDs work together to generate the low and high beam lights, and they are supplemented by a module for the allweather and turning lights. A light conductor along the upper border of the headlight generates the daytime running lights, parking lights and turn signal lights. Special illumination functions are available for intersections, country roads, expressways and poor weather – and their interplay with the navigation system makes their range of performance even greater. The light signature of Matrix LED headlights has a characteristic focused face with a four-eyes appearance, in which the low beam and high beam lamps look like a double-eye. All lighting functions are implemented in LED technology. In the Audi A5, for instance, 18 LEDs project light through two lenses to produce the high beam of the Matrix LED headlights. Based on information from the camera mounted on the interior mirror, the LED control unit switches the LEDs on and off individually and can also dim them over 64 steps as necessary. This enables the Matrix LED headlights to produce several million light distribution variants. They always light the road with the optimal distribution of a light similar to daylight, but without blinding other road users with glare. To prevent the driver from being blinded by glare from highly reflective traffic signs, these are specifically illuminated with reduced power. The turning light of the Matrix LED headlights is produced by shifting the focal point of the light. When it is employed with the optional MMI navigation plus, predictive route data enables it to be activated even before the steering wheel is turned. The dynamic turn signals, which are produced by a row of sequentially activated light-emitting diodes, run from the inside out in the direction the driver is turning to send clear and intuitively understood signals to the surroundings.
Xenon headlights are gas discharge lamps. Two tungsten electrodes are fused into a thickwalled quartz glass bulb that is filled with xenon gas, also known as the burner. A concentrated arc of light is produced between them – a process in which the enclosed noble gas fill exerts a pressure of up to 100 bar. The xenon gas itself lights in more of a violet hue, but metallic salts contained in the glass bulb reduce its color temperature to 4,200 Kelvin. Xenon headlights deliver a much brighter light and achieve better illumination of the roadway than halogen lights with incandescent bulbs. Their energy consumption – including the energy consumed by the ballast unit – is around 20 percent lower, and their life is much longer. Audi offers what are known as xenon plus headlights in most models, either as an option or as standard equipment. In this technology, a single burner generates both the low and high beams, and they are switched by a movable shutter.